Energy Storage Materials Guide

Battery Assembly + Protection

Browse below to source the right specialty material solution for your energy storage projects. Discover materials that help handle heat and current isolation with battery modules and packs, and that offer physical and chemical protection for sensitive assemblies in any environment. Review the data and test methods for the materials that adhere and protect the critical components in your power supply devices – devices that handle the important tasks of converting power and regulating voltage.

Choose from a variety of specialty materials for your power supply applications. Featured materials may be found that have excellent thermal stability, a wide operating temperature range, and reliable performance under harsh conditions – resistance to thermal shock, oxidation, moisture and chemicals.

Featured Materials

Manufacturer | Material
Industry Application Type 1 Part or 2 Part High Temperature Resistance (°C) Viscosity (cPs)

Master Control Module

Conformal Coat

1 Part

200

Medium

,

350

Power Supplies

Bond

,

Seal

1 Part

200

Non-flow

Housing and Assembly

Gap Filler

,

Potting

2 Part

Flowable

,

40,000

Power Supplies

Bond

,

Seal

1 Part

200

Non-flow

Elastoplastic toughened coating

Conformal Coat

1 Part

200

Medium

,

950

Master Control Module

,

UV Cured

Conformal Coating

1 Part

130

120

Pre-treating anodes and cathodes with functional coatings allows for better conductivity at the cell level. Positive temperature coefficient (PTC) inks provide a self-regulating, thin, light solution to elevate cell temperature in freezing conditions. Both of these are particularly important in Lithium-Ion cells, to combat lithium plating and ensure top performance and increased battery life. A variety of structural adhesives are also available for cell construction, as well as low-pressure molding compounds for encasing cells and/or assemblies in a single unit.

Click below to view materials for each application

Functional Coating PTC Ink

Functional Coatings

Manufacturer | Material
Substrate Industry Application Type Chemistry Viscosity (cPs)

Aluminum

,

Copper

Battery electrodes

Conductive carbon coating

Water based

50 to 200

Aluminum

Battery Cells

Conductive carbon coating

Thermosetting resin system

,

Water based

600

PTC Inks

Manufacturer | Material
Substrate Industry Application Method Cure Time (min) Cure Temperature (°C)

Copper laminated substrates

,

Epoxy paper

,

Glass epoxy

,

Phenolic paper

,

Plain substrates

Battery Cells

Screen printable

30 min @ 150 to 160°C

150 to 160°C

Polyester

,

Stainless steel

Battery Cells

High speed reel-to-reel

,

Manual

,

Semi-automatic

15 min @ 120°C

120°C

Polyester film

Battery Cells

,

Housing and Assembly

Screen printable

15 min @ 93°C

93°C

Most common substrates

,

PET substrates

Self regulating heating elements

Screen printable

10 min @ 120°C

120°C

PET substrates

Battery Cells

,

Housing and Assembly

Screen printable

2.00 min @ 150°C

,

15 min @ 120°C

120°C

,

150°C

Materials for assembly including bonding and thread locking, as well as for environmental protection of the module and any circuitry components. Ruggedizing can be accomplished with specialty materials as well. Thermally conductive materials are included for helping with heat generated during charging and discharging. Dielectric materials can help insulate in high-voltage applications. Epoxy, urethane, silicone, polyamide and other chemistries are available depending on design and operation needs. Low-pressure molding is an option for entire assemblies or individual components.

Low Pressure Molding

Manufacturer | Material
Color High Temperature Resistance (°C) Shore A Hardness () Softening Point (°C) Industry

Black

140

88

,

90

182 to 192

,

187

Housing and Assembly

175 to 190

Housing and Assembly

Amber

197 to 204

Housing and Assembly

Black

125

92

170 to 180

Housing and Assembly

,

Increased Hardness

Amber

High temperature

,

140

88

,

90

182 to 192

Housing and Assembly

Black

140

190

Housing and Assembly

Conformal Coatings

Manufacturer | Material
Viscosity (cPs) High Temperature Resistance (°C) Cure Time (min) Color Volume Resistivity (O)

Medium

,

350

200

Fast

,

2.00 min @ 60°C

,

30 min @ 20 to 25°C

Light Straw

,

Translucent

5.5 E15 (ohms/cm)

Medium

,

950

200

10 min @ 20 to 25°C

,

4,320 min @ 25°C

Clear

,

Transparent

5E+13 (ohms/cm)

Low

,

115

200

Fast

,

2.00 min @ 60°C

,

30 min @ 20 to 25°C

Light Straw

,

Translucent

8.7 E14 (ohms/cm)

120

130

Rapid

,

<0.08 min

,

3,000 min @ 25°C

,

6,000 min @ 25°C

Translucent yellow

2.2e16 (ohms/cm)

Medium

,

1,050

200

10 min @ 25°C

,

10 min @ 80°C

,

10 min @ 60°C

,

4,320 min @ 25°C

Transparent

1.9e14 (ohms/cm)

38,000

150

Blue Transparent

,

Clear

1.48e15 (ohm-cm)

Thermal Interface Materials: Coatings

Manufacturer | Material
Color Glass Transition Temp (Tg) (°C) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Chemistry

White

Durable

,

210

High

,

0.67

Polydimethylsiloxane

,

Silicone Paste

,

Zinc Oxide

Cream

60

,

100

750

0.80 to 1.40

Epoxy

Black

110 to 120

650 (VAC/mil)

Thermally conductive

,

0.60

Aluminum

Thermal Interface Materials: Gap Fillers

Manufacturer | Material
Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Viscosity (cPs) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Key Specifications - Old Cure Time (min)

Thermally conductive

,

0.90

Electrically isolating

Thermally Conductive

,

1.80

20 (Pa-s)

400

10 min @ 100°C

,

480 min @ 25°C

Thermally Conductive

,

>3.40

Flowable

,

40,000

360

<5.00 min @ 125°C

,

120 min @ 20 to 25°C RT

High

,

3.50

45 (Pa-s)

,

Excellent wet-out for low stress interfaces on applications

275

30 min @ 25°C

,

1,440 min @ 25°C

Thermally conductive

,

1.50

200 (Pa-s)

,

30 (Pa-s)

,

Excellent wet-out for near zero interface stress

,

High shear thinning characteristics

275

10 min @ 25°C

,

30 min @ 25°C

,

300 min @ 25°C

Thermal Interface Materials: Gap Pads

Manufacturer | Material
Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Modulus (psi) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Key Specifications - Old Application Type

Thermally conductive

,

2.00

33

Electrically isolating

Thermally Conductive Gap Filling Material

Thermally conductive

,

>3.40

2.2 (MPa)

280

Gap Pad

Thermally conductive

110 (kPa)

,

Low

Gap filling material

Thermally Conductive

,

1.30

16

Gap Filler

Thermally Conductive

,

5.00

Low

,

18

5000 (Vac)

Gap filling material

Thermally conductive

,

1.00

60

Gap Filler

Thermal Interface Materials: Phase Change Materials

Manufacturer | Material
Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Key Specifications - Old High Temperature Resistance (°C) Chemistry

Thermally conductive

,

1.50

Electrically insulating

,

High

150

Polyimide

Thermally conductive

,

3.00

125

Aluminium

Outstanding thermal performance

,

1.60

Electrically Insulating

,

Excellent Dielectric Performance

Aluminum oxide

Thermal Interface Materials: Sil Pads

Manufacturer | Material
Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Key Specifications - Old Industry Material Form

1.30

Control Module

,

Housing and Assembly

,

Master Control Module

Die-cut parts

,

Roll form

,

Sheet form

High thermal conductivity

,

1.60

Electrical isolation

Control Module

,

Housing and Assembly

,

Master Control Module

Die-cut parts

,

Roll Form

,

Sheet Form

Thermal Interface Materials: Thermal Adhesives

Manufacturer | Material
Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Key Specifications - Old Cure Time (min) High Temperature Resistance (°C)

Thermal management

,

2.00

275

60 min @ 85°C

180

Thermally Conductive

,

1.40

Exceptional

,

High Durability

6 min @ 160°C

,

30 min @ 125°C

180

Thermally Conductive

,

0.80

Electrically isolating

125

Structural Adhesives

Manufacturer | Material
Color Viscosity (cPs) Cure Time (min) Fixture or Handling Strength Time (min) Industry

Creamy gel

,

Non-sag

,

280,000

Fast

,

9 to 10

Housing and Assembly

Light Yellow

Non-sag

,

9,846

Fast

,

18 to 20

Housing and Assembly

Electrically Conductive Adhesives or Solders

Manufacturer | Material
Chemistry Industry Electrical Conductivity (mhos/cm) Application Type Substrate

Acrylate

Control Module

,

Master Control Module

Electrical Conductivity

,

Electrically conductive

Adhesive

Noble metals

Epoxy

Control Module

Excellent

Bond

2024 T3 Al Abraded

,

Various metals

Halogen free

Control Module

,

Master Control Module

Electrical Conductivity

Solder flux

Bare copper

,

Common plastics

,

Immersion tin

,

Nickel-gold

Halogen-free

,

Pb-free

Control Module

,

Master Control Module

Electrically Conductive

Soldering

Threadlocking Adhesives

Manufacturer | Material
Manufacturer | Material
Viscosity (cPs) Cure Time (min) Cure Temperature (°C) Chemistry 1 Part or 2 Part

Medium

,

350

,

1,300 to 3,000

1,440 min @ 22°C

,

10,080 min @ 22°C

22°C

Acrylic

,

Dimethacrylate ester

1 Part

1,400

480 min @ 25°C

25°C

Solvent-free

1 Part

Electrically Conductive Adhesives

Manufacturer | Material
Volume Resistivity (O) Glass Transition Temp (Tg) (°C) Modulus (psi) Cure Temperature (°C) Chemistry

0.00089 (ohms/cm)

,

0.0014 (ohms/cm)

,

0.003 (ohms/cm)

17

,

34

50,000

,

65,000

20 to 25°C Room Temperature

,

25°C

,

60°C

Epoxy

0.0025 (ohm.cm)

-30

650 (MPa)

Low

,

110°C

,

130°C

,

150°C

Acrylate

Issues around thermal management and dielectric strength become even more important in battery packs where multiple batteries are included. Here, thermally conductive pottants and encapsulants help manage and distribute heat evenly across the pack. Gap fillers can likewise provide good thermal conductivity and in some cases provide physical and vibration resistance, along with appropriate encapsulants. Epoxy, urethane, silicone, polyamide and other chemistries are available depending on design and operation needs. Materials for bonding and thread locking in assembly are also used, as well as gasketing and other sealant material to protect the pack from environmental factors and tampering.

Solders

Manufacturer | Material
Industry Application Type 1 Part or 2 Part Material Form Substrate

Master Control Module

Soldering - Cored wire

1 Part

Wire

Brass

,

Copper

,

Nickel

Master Control Module

Solder wire - Cored

1 Part

Wire

Brass

,

Copper

,

Nickel

Control Module

,

Master Control Module

Soldering

1 Part

Paste

Thermal Management: Coatings

Manufacturer | Material
Color Glass Transition Temp (Tg) (°C) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Chemistry

White

Durable

,

210

High

,

0.67

Polydimethylsiloxane

,

Silicone Paste

,

Zinc Oxide

Cream

60

,

100

750

0.80 to 1.40

Epoxy

Black

110 to 120

650 (VAC/mil)

Thermally conductive

,

0.60

Aluminum

Thermal Management: Gap Fillers

Manufacturer | Material
Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Viscosity (cPs) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Key Specifications - Old Cure Time (min)

Thermally conductive

,

0.90

Electrically isolating

Thermally Conductive

,

1.80

20 (Pa-s)

400

10 min @ 100°C

,

480 min @ 25°C

Thermally Conductive

,

>3.40

Flowable

,

40,000

360

<5.00 min @ 125°C

,

120 min @ 20 to 25°C RT

Provides durable dielectric insulation

,

Thermally Conductive

,

2.50

,

2.60

217 (Pa.s)

18 (kV/mm)

10 min @ 80°C

,

20 min @ 50°C

,

120 min @ 25°C Room Temperature

Provides durable dielectric insulation

,

Thermally Conductive

,

2.50

,

2.60

217 (Pa.s)

18 (kV/mm)

10 min @ 80°C

,

20 min @ 50°C

,

120 min @ 25°C Room Temperature

High

,

3.50

45 (Pa-s)

,

Excellent wet-out for low stress interfaces on applications

275

30 min @ 25°C

,

1,440 min @ 25°C

Thermal Management: Gap Pads

Manufacturer | Material
Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Modulus (psi) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Key Specifications - Old Application Type

Thermally conductive

,

2.00

33

Electrically isolating

Thermally Conductive Gap Filling Material

Thermally conductive

110 (kPa)

,

Low

Gap filling material

Thermally Conductive

,

1.30

16

Gap Filler

Thermally Conductive

,

5.00

Low

,

18

5000 (Vac)

Gap filling material

Thermally conductive

,

1.00

60

Gap Filler

Thermal Management: Phase Change Materials

Manufacturer | Material
Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Key Specifications - Old High Temperature Resistance (°C) Chemistry

Thermally conductive

,

1.50

Electrically insulating

,

High

150

Polyimide

Thermally conductive

,

3.00

125

Aluminium

Outstanding thermal performance

,

1.60

Electrically Insulating

,

Excellent Dielectric Performance

Aluminum oxide

Thermal Management: Sil Pads

Manufacturer | Material
Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Key Specifications - Old Industry Material Form

1.30

Control Module

,

Housing and Assembly

,

Master Control Module

Die-cut parts

,

Roll form

,

Sheet form

High thermal conductivity

,

1.60

Electrical isolation

Control Module

,

Housing and Assembly

,

Master Control Module

Die-cut parts

,

Roll Form

,

Sheet Form

Thermal Management: Thermal Adhesives

Manufacturer | Material
Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Key Specifications - Old Cure Time (min) High Temperature Resistance (°C)

Thermal management

,

2.00

275

60 min @ 85°C

180

Thermally Conductive

,

1.40

Exceptional

,

High Durability

6 min @ 160°C

,

30 min @ 125°C

180

Thermally Conductive

,

0.80

Electrically isolating

125

Electrically Conductive Adhesives

Conformal Coatings

Manufacturer | Material
Viscosity (cPs) High Temperature Resistance (°C) Cure Time (min) Color Volume Resistivity (O)

Medium

,

350

200

Fast

,

2.00 min @ 60°C

,

30 min @ 20 to 25°C

Light Straw

,

Translucent

5.5 E15 (ohms/cm)

Low

,

115

200

Fast

,

2.00 min @ 60°C

,

30 min @ 20 to 25°C

Light Straw

,

Translucent

8.7 E14 (ohms/cm)

120

130

Rapid

,

<0.08 min

,

3,000 min @ 25°C

,

6,000 min @ 25°C

Translucent yellow

2.2e16 (ohms/cm)

Medium

,

1,050

200

10 min @ 25°C

,

10 min @ 80°C

,

10 min @ 60°C

,

4,320 min @ 25°C

Transparent

1.9e14 (ohms/cm)

400 to 800 (LMS)

60 (Seconds), 7 (days) @ 22°C

,

0.33 to 0.67 min

,

1.00 min

,

4,320 min

,

10,080 min @ 22°C

Transparent amber

,

Yellow

1e14 (ohms/cm)

250

135

0.17 min

,

2,880 to 4,320 min @ 20 to 25°C

Clear

3.5e16 (ohm/cm)

Sealants

Manufacturer | Material
Volume Resistivity (O) Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) Cure Temperature (°C) Cure Time (min) Color

2.24e15 (ohms/cm)

1.78e-4 (in./ in/°F)

20 to 25°C

Dark gray-black

2.0E +16 (ohm*cm)

Lower temperature

,

20 to 25°C

Faster @ Lower temperature

,

2,880 min @ 20 to 25°C

Translucent

,

White

6.7e14 (ohms/cm)

324e-6 (K-1)

23°C

0.50 min

,

1.00 min

,

1.00 min @ 23°C

,

1.50 min

Light yellow

,

Translucent

150°C

4.00 min

,

10 min @ 150°C

,

60 min @ 150°C

Translucent

10e12 (Ohm-meter)

Cure rate is greatly accelerated at elevated temperatures

,

25 to 180°C

,

25°C

,

50°C

,

85°C

Fast and adaptable @ Cure rate is greatly accelerated at elevated temperatures

,

15 min @ 85°C

,

30 min @ 50°C

,

60 min @ 50°C

,

240 min @ 50°C

,

720 min @ 50°C

,

720 min @ 25°C

,

1,440 min @ 25°C

,

4,320 min @ 25°C

,

10,080 min @ 25°C

Black

Low Pressure Molding

Manufacturer | Material
Glass Transition Temp (Tg) (°C) Density (g/cm³) Shore A Hardness () High Temperature Resistance (°C) Industry

-50

,

-45

0.98

88

,

90

140

Housing and Assembly

-50

~1

Housing and Assembly

-30

~ 1

Housing and Assembly

-35

0.98

92

125

Housing and Assembly

,

Increased Hardness

-45

0.98

88

,

90

High temperature

,

140

Housing and Assembly

Structural Adhesives

Manufacturer | Material
Color Viscosity (cPs) Cure Time (min) Fixture or Handling Strength Time (min) Industry

Creamy gel

,

Non-sag

,

280,000

Fast

,

9 to 10

Housing and Assembly

Light Yellow

Non-sag

,

9,846

Fast

,

18 to 20

Housing and Assembly

Threadlockers

Manufacturer | Material
Manufacturer | Material
Viscosity (cPs) Cure Time (min) Cure Temperature (°C) Chemistry 1 Part or 2 Part

Medium

,

350

,

1,300 to 3,000

1,440 min @ 22°C

,

10,080 min @ 22°C

22°C

Acrylic

,

Dimethacrylate ester

1 Part

1,400

480 min @ 25°C

25°C

Solvent-free

1 Part

Whether you are building batteries or building systems, sourcing specialty materials for the design of your power cells is vital. Materials for packs, junctions boxes, and control systems (PCBs) are only useful if they help deal with the load during charging and discharging.

Pottants & Encapsulants

Manufacturer | Material
Volume Resistivity (O) Glass Transition Temp (Tg) (°C) Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) Modulus (psi) Cure Temperature (°C)

1.61 E+15 (ohms/cm)

325 (Linear (micron/m °C or ppm ))

1,050

25°C

,

100°C

,

125°C

,

150°C

6.57e15 (ohms/cm)

135

123 (ppm/°C)

,

43 (ppm/°C)

8,700

140 to 150°C

Low

,

2

217 (ppm/°C)

,

57 (ppm/°C)

Low

,

67,589

Moderate temperatures

,

130°C

3.6 E16 (Ohm-Cm)

79 ppm/°C

2.2 (MPa)

20 to 25°C Room temperature

,

20 to 25°C RT

,

125°C

1e13 (ohm-cm)

60 (MPa)

1.6 x 10E12 (Ohm-Cm)

20 to 25°C RT

,

125°C

Adhesives

Manufacturer | Material
Color Viscosity (cPs) Cure Time (min) High Temperature Resistance (°C) Industry

Gray

Non-flow

2,880 min @ 20 to 25°C

200

Power Supplies

Clear

Non-flow

2,880 min @ 20 to 25°C

200

Power Supplies

Colorless

Flowable

,

3,500

10 min @ 150°C

,

20 min @ 125°C

,

35 min @ 100°C

,

2,880 min @ 20 to 25°C

200

Power Supplies

Gray

Non-flow

1,440 min @ 20 to 25°C

200

Power Supplies

Black

,

Dark Gray

Flowable

,

Low

,

2,135

10 min @ 100°C

,

15 min @ 85°C

,

25 min @ 70°C

,

1,440 min @ 25°C

200

Housing and Assembly

,

Power Supplies

Blue

,

Translucent

Non-flow

2,880 min @ 20 to 25°C

200

Power Supplies

Sealants

Manufacturer | Material
Volume Resistivity (O) Shore A Hardness () Tensile Strength (psi) Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) Cure Temperature (°C)

4.4E+14 (ohms/cm)

46

High

,

864 psi

375 (Linear (micron/m °C or ppm ))

Faster or lower

,

20 to 25°C

4.4E+14 (ohm-cm)

51

High

,

1,035 psi

375 (Linear micron/m °C or ppm)

Faster or lower

,

20 to 25°C

2.4E+15 (ohms/cm)

35

125 psi

250 (Linear (micron/m °C or ppm ))

Faster or lower

,

20 to 25°C

2.5E+14 (ohms/cm)

32

285 psi

300 (Linear (micron/m °C or ppm ))

20 to 25°C

1.1E+15 (ohms/cm)

37

395 psi

20 to 25°C

,

25°C

1.6e15 (ohms/cm)

36

325 psi

Faster or lower

,

20 to 25°C

Conformal Coatings

Manufacturer | Material
Viscosity (cPs) High Temperature Resistance (°C) Cure Time (min) Color Volume Resistivity (O)

Medium

,

350

200

Fast

,

2.00 min @ 60°C

,

30 min @ 20 to 25°C

Light Straw

,

Translucent

5.5 E15 (ohms/cm)

Medium

,

950

200

10 min @ 20 to 25°C

,

4,320 min @ 25°C

Clear

,

Transparent

5E+13 (ohms/cm)

Low

,

115

200

Fast

,

2.00 min @ 60°C

,

30 min @ 20 to 25°C

Light Straw

,

Translucent

8.7 E14 (ohms/cm)

120

130

Rapid

,

<0.08 min

,

3,000 min @ 25°C

,

6,000 min @ 25°C

Translucent yellow

2.2e16 (ohms/cm)

Medium

,

1,050

200

10 min @ 25°C

,

10 min @ 80°C

,

10 min @ 60°C

,

4,320 min @ 25°C

Transparent

1.9e14 (ohms/cm)

38,000

150

Blue Transparent

,

Clear

1.48e15 (ohm-cm)

Silicones

Manufacturer | Material
Volume Resistivity (O) Shore A Hardness () Tensile Strength (psi) Cure Time (min) Viscosity (cPs)

5.5 E15 (ohms/cm)

34

80 psi

Fast

,

2.00 min @ 60°C

,

30 min @ 20 to 25°C

Medium

,

350

4.4E+14 (ohms/cm)

46

High

,

864 psi

2,880 min @ 20 to 25°C

Non-flow

2.9e14(ohms/cm)

980 psi

10 min @ 150°C

,

20 min @ 125°C

,