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  • Diane Elliott
  • Russell Guimond
  • Rodney Kasperson
  • Dipak Lad
  • Derek Landis

Energy storage: battery production and protection materials

Browse below to source the right specialty material solution for your energy storage projects. Discover materials that help handle heat and current isolation with battery modules and packs, and that offer physical and chemical protection for sensitive assemblies in any environment. Review the data and test methods for the materials that adhere and protect the critical components in your power supply devices – devices that handle the important tasks of converting power and regulating voltage.

Energy storage solutions are evolving rapidly. Through Gluespec’s custom database and technical expertise, we can help you drive discovery, innovation, and development of new production methods and technologies.

Choose from a variety of specialty materials for your power supply applications. Featured materials may be found that have excellent thermal stability, a wide operating temperature range, and reliable performance under harsh conditions – resistance to thermal shock, oxidation, moisture and chemicals.

Featured Materials

Manufacturer | Material
Industry Application Type 1 Part or 2 Part High Temperature Resistance (°C) Viscosity (cPs)

Master Control Module

Conformal Coat

1 Part

200

Medium

,

350

Power Supplies

Bond

,

Seal

1 Part

200

Non-flow

Power Supplies

Bond

,

Seal

1 Part

200

Non-flow

Power Supplies

Bond

,

Encapsulate

,

Pot

2 Part

200

Flowable

,

3,500

Master Control Module

Conformal Coat

1 Part

200

Low

,

115

Power Supplies

Bond

,

Seal

1 Part

200

Non-flow

Pre-treating anodes and cathodes with functional coatings allows for better conductivity at the cell level. Positive temperature coefficient (PTC) inks provide a self-regulating, thin, light solution to elevate cell temperature in freezing conditions. Both of these are particularly important in Lithium-Ion cells, to combat lithium plating and ensure top performance and increased battery life. A variety of structural adhesives are also available for cell construction, as well as low-pressure molding compounds for encasing cells and/or assemblies in a single unit.

Click below to view materials for each application

Functional Coating PTC Ink

Functional Coatings

Manufacturer | Material
Substrate Industry Application Type Manufacturer Chemistry

Aluminum

,

Copper

Battery electrodes

Conductive carbon coating

Henkel

Water based

Aluminum

Battery Cells

Conductive carbon coating

Henkel

Thermosetting resin system

,

Water based

PTC Inks

Manufacturer | Material
Substrate Industry Application Method Cure Time (min) Cure Temperature (°C)

Copper laminated substrates

,

Epoxy paper

,

Glass epoxy

,

Phenolic paper

,

Plain substrates

Battery Cells

Screen printable

30 min @ 150 to 160°C

150 to 160°C

Polyester

,

Stainless steel

Battery Cells

High speed reel-to-reel

,

Manual

,

Semi-automatic

15 min @ 120°C

120°C

Polyester film

Battery Cells

,

Housing and Assembly

Screen printable

15 min @ 93°C

93°C

Most common substrates

,

PET substrates

Self regulating heating elements

Screen printable

10 min @ 120°C

120°C

PET substrates

Battery Cells

,

Housing and Assembly

Screen printable

2.00 min @ 150°C

,

15 min @ 120°C

120°C

,

150°C

Materials for assembly including bonding and thread locking, as well as for environmental protection of the module and any circuitry components. Ruggedizing can be accomplished with specialty materials as well. Thermally conductive materials are included for helping with heat generated during charging and discharging. Dielectric materials can help insulate in high-voltage applications. Epoxy, urethane, silicone, polyamide and other chemistries are available depending on design and operation needs. Low-pressure molding is an option for entire assemblies or individual components.

Low Pressure Molding

Manufacturer | Material
Color High Temperature Resistance (°C) Shore A Hardness () Softening Point (°C) Industry

Black

140

88

,

90

182 to 192

,

187

Housing and Assembly

Black

125

92

170 to 180

Housing and Assembly

,

Increased Hardness

Amber

High temperature

,

140

88

,

90

182 to 192

Housing and Assembly

Black

140

190

Housing and Assembly

Conformal Coatings

Manufacturer | Material
Viscosity (cPs) High Temperature Resistance (°C) Cure Time (min) Color Volume Resistivity (O)

Medium

,

350

200

Fast

,

2.00 min @ 60°C

,

30 min @ 20 to 25°C

Light Straw

,

Translucent

5.5 E15 (ohms/cm)

Low

,

115

200

Fast

,

2.00 min @ 60°C

,

30 min @ 20 to 25°C

Light Straw

,

Translucent

8.7 E14 (ohms/cm)

120

130

Rapid

,

<0.08 min

,

3,000 min @ 25°C

,

6,000 min @ 25°C

Translucent yellow

2.2e16 (ohms/cm)

Medium

,

1,050

200

10 min @ 25°C

,

10 min @ 80°C

,

10 min @ 60°C

,

4,320 min @ 25°C

Transparent

1.9e14 (ohms/cm)

400 to 800 (LMS)

60 (Seconds), 7 (days) @ 22°C

,

0.33 to 0.67 min

,

1.00 min

,

4,320 min

,

10,080 min @ 22°C

Transparent amber

,

Yellow

1e14 (ohms/cm)

250

135

0.17 min

,

2,880 to 4,320 min @ 20 to 25°C

Clear

3.5e16 (ohm/cm)

Thermal Interface Materials: Coatings

Manufacturer | Material
Manufacturer | Material
Color Glass Transition Temp (Tg) (°C) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Chemistry

Black

110 to 120

650 (VAC/mil)

Thermally conductive

,

0.60

Aluminum

Thermal Interface Materials: Gap Fillers

Manufacturer | Material
Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Viscosity (cPs) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Key Specifications Cure Time (min)

Thermally conductive

,

0.90

Electrically isolating

U.L. 94, V-1

Thermally Conductive

,

1.80

20 (Pa-s)

400

U.L. 94, V-O

10 min @ 100°C

,

480 min @ 25°C

High

,

3.50

45 (Pa-s)

,

Excellent wet-out for low stress interfaces on applications

275

U.L. 94, V-O

30 min @ 25°C

,

1,440 min @ 25°C

Thermally conductive

,

1.50

200 (Pa-s)

,

30 (Pa-s)

,

Excellent wet-out for near zero interface stress

,

High shear thinning characteristics

275

U.L. 94, V-O

10 min @ 25°C

,

30 min @ 25°C

,

300 min @ 25°C

Thermal Interface Materials: Gap Pads

Manufacturer | Material
Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Modulus (psi) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Key Specifications Application Type

Thermally conductive

,

2.00

33

Electrically isolating

Thermally Conductive Gap Filling Material

Thermally conductive

,

>3.40

2.2 (MPa)

280

RoHS Compliant

,

V0

Gap Pad

Thermally conductive

110 (kPa)

,

Low

U.L. 94, V-O

Gap filling material

Thermally Conductive

,

1.30

16

Gap Filler

Thermally Conductive

,

5.00

Low

,

18

5000 (Vac)

U.L.94, V-O

Gap filling material

Thermally conductive

,

1.00

60

Gap Filler

Thermal Interface Materials: Phase Change Materials

Manufacturer | Material
Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Key Specifications High Temperature Resistance (°C) Chemistry

Thermally conductive

,

1.50

Electrically insulating

,

High

U.L. 94, V-O

150

Polyimide

Thermally conductive

,

3.00

U.L. 94, V-0

125

Aluminium

Outstanding thermal performance

,

1.60

Electrically Insulating

,

Excellent Dielectric Performance

U.L. 94, V-0

Aluminum oxide

Thermal Interface Materials: Sil Pads

Manufacturer | Material
Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Key Specifications Industry Material Form

1.30

U.L.94, VTM-O

Control Module

,

Housing and Assembly

,

Master Control Module

Die-cut parts

,

Roll form

,

Sheet form

High thermal conductivity

,

1.60

Electrical isolation

U.L. 94, V-O

Control Module

,

Housing and Assembly

,

Master Control Module

Die-cut parts

,

Roll Form

,

Sheet Form

Thermal Interface Materials: Thermal Adhesives

Manufacturer | Material
Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Key Specifications Cure Time (min) High Temperature Resistance (°C)

Thermal management

,

2.00

275

UL 94 V-0

60 min @ 85°C

180

High

,

1.80

10000 (V/mm)

U.L.94, V-O

10 min @ 150°C

,

20 min @ 125°C

200

Thermally Conductive

,

1.40

Exceptional

,

High Durability

U.L. 94, V-O

6 min @ 160°C

,

30 min @ 125°C

180

Thermally Conductive

,

0.80

Electrically isolating

U.L. 94, V-O

125

Thermally conductive

,

0.60

650 (VAC/mil)

RoHS compliant

,

U.L. 94 VO

Structural Adhesives

Manufacturer | Material
Color Viscosity (cPs) Cure Time (min) Fixture or Handling Strength Time (min) Industry

Black

Low

,

125,000

10 min @ 150°C

,

20 min @ 125°C

Control Module

,

Housing and Assembly

,

Master Control Module

Green

Non-sag

,

8,850

Rapid @ 20 to 25°C Room Temperature

Fast

,

25 to 30

Battery Modules

,

Housing and Assembly

Electrically Conductive Adhesives or Solders

Manufacturer | Material
Chemistry Industry Electrical Conductivity (mhos/cm) Application Type

Acrylate

Control Module

,

Master Control Module

Electrical Conductivity

,

Electrically conductive

Adhesive

Halogen free

Control Module

,

Master Control Module

Electrical Conductivity

Solder flux

Halogen-free

,

Pb-free

Control Module

,

Master Control Module

Electrically Conductive

Soldering

Threadlocking Adhesives

Manufacturer | Material
Viscosity (cPs) Cure Time (min) Cure Temperature (°C) Chemistry 1 Part or 2 Part

High

,

80,000 to 150,000

4,320 min @ 22°C

22°C

Acrylic

,

Methacrylate ester

1 Part

75,000 to 100,000

60 min @ 149°C

,

60 min @ 204°C

,

1,440 min @ 22°C

,

4,320 min @ 22°C

22°C

,

149°C

,

204°C

Acrylic

,

Methacrylate ester

2 Part

Electrically Conductive Adhesives

Issues around thermal management and dielectric strength become even more important in battery packs where multiple batteries are included. Here, thermally conductive pottants and encapsulants help manage and distribute heat evenly across the pack. Gap fillers can likewise provide good thermal conductivity and in some cases provide physical and vibration resistance, along with appropriate encapsulants. Epoxy, urethane, silicone, polyamide and other chemistries are available depending on design and operation needs. Materials for bonding and thread locking in assembly are also used, as well as gasketing and other sealant material to protect the pack from environmental factors and tampering.

Solders

Manufacturer | Material
Industry Application Type Manufacturer 1 Part or 2 Part Material Form

Master Control Module

Soldering - Cored wire

Henkel

1 Part

Wire

Master Control Module

Solder wire - Cored

Henkel

1 Part

Wire

Control Module

,

Master Control Module

Soldering

Henkel

1 Part

Paste

Thermal Management: Coatings

Manufacturer | Material
Manufacturer | Material
Color Glass Transition Temp (Tg) (°C) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Chemistry

Black

110 to 120

650 (VAC/mil)

Thermally conductive

,

0.60

Aluminum

Thermal Management: Gap Fillers

Manufacturer | Material
Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Viscosity (cPs) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Key Specifications Cure Time (min)

Thermally conductive

,

0.90

Electrically isolating

U.L. 94, V-1

Thermally Conductive

,

1.80

20 (Pa-s)

400

U.L. 94, V-O

10 min @ 100°C

,

480 min @ 25°C

Provides durable dielectric insulation

,

Thermally Conductive

,

2.50

,

2.60

217 (Pa.s)

18 (kV/mm)

UL 94 V-0 certification

10 min @ 80°C

,

20 min @ 50°C

,

120 min @ 25°C Room Temperature

Provides durable dielectric insulation

,

Thermally Conductive

,

2.50

,

2.60

217 (Pa.s)

18 (kV/mm)

UL 94 V-0 certification

10 min @ 80°C

,

20 min @ 50°C

,

120 min @ 25°C Room Temperature

High

,

3.50

45 (Pa-s)

,

Excellent wet-out for low stress interfaces on applications

275

U.L. 94, V-O

30 min @ 25°C

,

1,440 min @ 25°C

Thermally conductive

,

1.50

200 (Pa-s)

,

30 (Pa-s)

,

Excellent wet-out for near zero interface stress

,

High shear thinning characteristics

275

U.L. 94, V-O

10 min @ 25°C

,

30 min @ 25°C

,

300 min @ 25°C

Thermal Management: Gap Pads

Manufacturer | Material
Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Modulus (psi) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Key Specifications Application Type

Thermally conductive

,

2.00

33

Electrically isolating

Thermally Conductive Gap Filling Material

Thermally conductive

110 (kPa)

,

Low

U.L. 94, V-O

Gap filling material

Thermally Conductive

,

1.30

16

Gap Filler

Thermally Conductive

,

5.00

Low

,

18

5000 (Vac)

U.L.94, V-O

Gap filling material

Thermally conductive

,

1.00

60

Gap Filler

Thermal Management: Phase Change Materials

Manufacturer | Material
Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Key Specifications High Temperature Resistance (°C) Chemistry

Thermally conductive

,

1.50

Electrically insulating

,

High

U.L. 94, V-O

150

Polyimide

Thermally conductive

,

3.00

U.L. 94, V-0

125

Aluminium

Outstanding thermal performance

,

1.60

Electrically Insulating

,

Excellent Dielectric Performance

U.L. 94, V-0

Aluminum oxide

Thermal Management: Sil Pads

Manufacturer | Material
Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Key Specifications Industry Material Form

1.30

U.L.94, VTM-O

Control Module

,

Housing and Assembly

,

Master Control Module

Die-cut parts

,

Roll form

,

Sheet form

High thermal conductivity

,

1.60

Electrical isolation

U.L. 94, V-O

Control Module

,

Housing and Assembly

,

Master Control Module

Die-cut parts

,

Roll Form

,

Sheet Form

Thermal Management: Thermal Adhesives

Manufacturer | Material
Thermal Conductivity (W/m°K) Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Key Specifications Cure Time (min) High Temperature Resistance (°C)

Thermal management

,

2.00

275

UL 94 V-0

60 min @ 85°C

180

High

,

1.80

10000 (V/mm)

U.L.94, V-O

10 min @ 150°C

,

20 min @ 125°C

200

Thermally Conductive

,

1.40

Exceptional

,

High Durability

U.L. 94, V-O

6 min @ 160°C

,

30 min @ 125°C

180

Thermally Conductive

,

0.80

Electrically isolating

U.L. 94, V-O

125

Thermally conductive

,

0.60

650 (VAC/mil)

RoHS compliant

,

U.L. 94 VO

Electrically Conductive Adhesives

Conformal Coatings

Manufacturer | Material
Viscosity (cPs) High Temperature Resistance (°C) Cure Time (min) Color Volume Resistivity (O)

Medium

,

350

200

Fast

,

2.00 min @ 60°C

,

30 min @ 20 to 25°C

Light Straw

,

Translucent

5.5 E15 (ohms/cm)

Low

,

115

200

Fast

,

2.00 min @ 60°C

,

30 min @ 20 to 25°C

Light Straw

,

Translucent

8.7 E14 (ohms/cm)

120

130

Rapid

,

<0.08 min

,

3,000 min @ 25°C

,

6,000 min @ 25°C

Translucent yellow

2.2e16 (ohms/cm)

Medium

,

1,050

200

10 min @ 25°C

,

10 min @ 80°C

,

10 min @ 60°C

,

4,320 min @ 25°C

Transparent

1.9e14 (ohms/cm)

400 to 800 (LMS)

60 (Seconds), 7 (days) @ 22°C

,

0.33 to 0.67 min

,

1.00 min

,

4,320 min

,

10,080 min @ 22°C

Transparent amber

,

Yellow

1e14 (ohms/cm)

250

135

0.17 min

,

2,880 to 4,320 min @ 20 to 25°C

Clear

3.5e16 (ohm/cm)

Sealants

Manufacturer | Material
Volume Resistivity (O) Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) Cure Temperature (°C) Cure Time (min) Color

2.24e15 (ohms/cm)

1.78e-4 (in./ in/°F)

20 to 25°C

Dark gray-black

2.0E +16 (ohm*cm)

Lower temperature

,

20 to 25°C

Faster @ Lower temperature

,

2,880 min @ 20 to 25°C

Translucent

,

White

6.7e14 (ohms/cm)

324e-6 (K-1)

23°C

0.50 min

,

1.00 min

,

1.00 min @ 23°C

,

1.50 min

Light yellow

,

Translucent

150°C

4.00 min

,

10 min @ 150°C

,

60 min @ 150°C

Translucent

22°C

4,320 min @ 22°C

Creamy light orange (uncured)

Low Pressure Molding

Manufacturer | Material
Glass Transition Temp (Tg) (°C) Density (g/cm³) Shore A Hardness () High Temperature Resistance (°C) Industry

-50

,

-45

0.98

88

,

90

140

Housing and Assembly

-35

0.98

92

125

Housing and Assembly

,

Increased Hardness

-45

0.98

88

,

90

High temperature

,

140

Housing and Assembly

Structural Adhesives

Manufacturer | Material
Color Viscosity (cPs) Cure Time (min) Fixture or Handling Strength Time (min) Industry

Black

Low

,

125,000

10 min @ 150°C

,

20 min @ 125°C

Control Module

,

Housing and Assembly

,

Master Control Module

Green

Non-sag

,

8,850

Rapid @ 20 to 25°C Room Temperature

Fast

,

25 to 30

Battery Modules

,

Housing and Assembly

Threadlockers

Manufacturer | Material
Viscosity (cPs) Cure Time (min) Cure Temperature (°C) Chemistry 1 Part or 2 Part

High

,

80,000 to 150,000

4,320 min @ 22°C

22°C

Acrylic

,

Methacrylate ester

1 Part

75,000 to 100,000

60 min @ 149°C

,

60 min @ 204°C

,

1,440 min @ 22°C

,

4,320 min @ 22°C

22°C

,

149°C

,

204°C

Acrylic

,

Methacrylate ester

2 Part

Whether you are building batteries or building systems, sourcing specialty materials for the design of your power cells is vital. Materials for packs, junctions boxes, and control systems (PCBs) are only useful if they help deal with the load during charging and discharging.

Pottants & Encapsulants

Manufacturer | Material
Volume Resistivity (O) Glass Transition Temp (Tg) (°C) Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) Modulus (psi) Cure Temperature (°C)

1.61 E+15 (ohms/cm)

325 (Linear (micron/m °C or ppm ))

1,050

25°C

,

100°C

,

125°C

,

150°C

6.57e15 (ohms/cm)

135

123 (ppm/°C)

,

43 (ppm/°C)

8,700

140 to 150°C

Low

,

2

217 (ppm/°C)

,

57 (ppm/°C)

Low

,

67,589

Moderate temperatures

,

130°C

3.6 E16 (Ohm-Cm)

79 ppm/°C

2.2 (MPa)

20 to 25°C Room temperature

,

20 to 25°C RT

,

125°C

1e13 (ohm-cm)

60 (MPa)

6e16 (ohms/cm)

300 (Linear (µm/m- ºC or ppm)

70°C

,

100°C

Adhesives

Manufacturer | Material
Color Viscosity (cPs) Cure Time (min) High Temperature Resistance (°C) Industry

Gray

Non-flow

2,880 min @ 20 to 25°C

200

Power Supplies

Clear

Non-flow

2,880 min @ 20 to 25°C

200

Power Supplies

Colorless

Flowable

,

3,500

10 min @ 150°C

,

20 min @ 125°C

,

35 min @ 100°C

,

2,880 min @ 20 to 25°C

200

Power Supplies

Gray

Non-flow

1,440 min @ 20 to 25°C

200

Power Supplies

Blue

,

Translucent

Non-flow

2,880 min @ 20 to 25°C

200

Power Supplies

Black

,

Dark Gray

Flowable

,

Low

,

2,135

10 min @ 100°C

,

15 min @ 85°C

,

25 min @ 70°C

,

1,440 min @ 25°C

200

Housing and Assembly

,

Power Supplies

Sealants

Manufacturer | Material
Volume Resistivity (O) Shore A Hardness () Tensile Strength (psi) Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) Cure Temperature (°C)

4.4E+14 (ohms/cm)

46

High

,

864 psi

375 (Linear (micron/m °C or ppm ))

Faster or lower

,

20 to 25°C

4.4E+14 (ohm-cm)

51

High

,

1,035 psi

375 (Linear micron/m °C or ppm)

Faster or lower

,

20 to 25°C

2.4E+15 (ohms/cm)

35

125 psi

250 (Linear (micron/m °C or ppm ))

Faster or lower

,

20 to 25°C

2.5E+14 (ohms/cm)

32

285 psi

300 (Linear (micron/m °C or ppm ))

20 to 25°C

1.1E+15 (ohms/cm)

37

395 psi

20 to 25°C

,

25°C

1.6e15 (ohms/cm)

36

325 psi

Faster or lower

,

20 to 25°C

Conformal Coatings

Manufacturer | Material
Viscosity (cPs) High Temperature Resistance (°C) Cure Time (min) Color Volume Resistivity (O)

Medium

,

350

200

Fast

,

2.00 min @ 60°C

,

30 min @ 20 to 25°C

Light Straw

,

Translucent

5.5 E15 (ohms/cm)

Low

,

115

200

Fast

,

2.00 min @ 60°C

,

30 min @ 20 to 25°C

Light Straw

,

Translucent

8.7 E14 (ohms/cm)

120

130

Rapid

,

<0.08 min

,

3,000 min @ 25°C

,

6,000 min @ 25°C

Translucent yellow

2.2e16 (ohms/cm)

Medium

,

1,050

200

10 min @ 25°C

,

10 min @ 80°C

,

10 min @ 60°C

,

4,320 min @ 25°C

Transparent

1.9e14 (ohms/cm)

400 to 800 (LMS)

60 (Seconds), 7 (days) @ 22°C

,

0.33 to 0.67 min

,

1.00 min

,

4,320 min

,

10,080 min @ 22°C

Transparent amber

,

Yellow

1e14 (ohms/cm)

250

135

0.17 min

,

2,880 to 4,320 min @ 20 to 25°C

Clear

3.5e16 (ohm/cm)

Silicones

Manufacturer | Material
Volume Resistivity (O) Shore A Hardness () Tensile Strength (psi) Cure Time (min) Viscosity (cPs)

5.5 E15 (ohms/cm)

34

80 psi

Fast

,

2.00 min @ 60°C

,

30 min @ 20 to 25°C

Medium

,

350

4.4E+14 (ohms/cm)

46

High

,

864 psi

2,880 min @ 20 to 25°C

Non-flow

2.9e14(ohms/cm)

980 psi

10 min @ 150°C

,

20 min @ 125°C

,

35 min @ 100°C

,

2,880 min @ 20 to 25°C

Flowable

,

3,500

5.6e14 (ohms/cm)

56

4.00 min @ 100°C

,

1,440 min @ 25°C

Flowable

,

4,865

6e16 (ohms/cm)

40

120 min @ 100°C

,

180 min @ 70°C

Flowable

,

1,540

5.6E+17 (ohms/cm)

47

10 min @ 100°C

,

15 min @ 85°C

,

25 min @ 70°C

,

1,440 min @ 25°C

Flowable

,

Low

,

2,135

Hot Melts

Manufacturer | Material
Color Shear Strength (psi) Viscosity Tensile Strength Softening Point (°C)

Black

47,415 to 217,500

Low

,

4,500

170 to 180

Amber

21,315 to 142,100

1800 (mPas)

,

2500 (mPas)

,

2800 to 4000 (mPas)

,

Low

,

3,400

827 psi

182 to 192

Black

0.4 (MPa)

,

0.9 (MPa)

55,000 to 65,000

4.5-4.7 (MPa)

Black